## The Speed of Physics

How fast does the physics community generate solutions to fundamental problems?

Physicists tend to be very resourceful people. If a standard model puzzle resists solution for multiple decades a major paradigm shift may be about to happen.

Examples:

Atomic stability:

Maxwell's equations (1875) implied that atoms would be unstable. The solution was quantum mechanics (Bohr 1913).

Solar Physics:

Solar neutrino deficit (Ray Davis 1960) led to discovery of neutrino masses and mixing (SNO 2002).

Galactic Structure:

Anomalous rotation curves (Oort 1932) led to Dark Matter (Rubin 1965).

Some Open Puzzles that may lead to radical new physics:

Fermion Mass Problem, u-d quark mass inversion (1975) -> ?

Why is the up quark lighter than the down quark ?

Hawking radiation information paradox (Hawking 1975) -> ?

Hawking radiation has caused more trouble for physics theory than any other unconfirmed phenomena.

Supernova Ia puzzle (Whelan & Iben 1973) -> ?

-> Phase transition in dense matter?

More recent puzzle:

Cosmological measure problem, entropy problem, initial state problem, Hubble constant anomaly ->?

-> cosmological inhomogeneity?

Physicists tend to be very resourceful people. If a standard model puzzle resists solution for multiple decades a major paradigm shift may be about to happen.

Examples:

Atomic stability:

Maxwell's equations (1875) implied that atoms would be unstable. The solution was quantum mechanics (Bohr 1913).

Solar Physics:

Solar neutrino deficit (Ray Davis 1960) led to discovery of neutrino masses and mixing (SNO 2002).

Galactic Structure:

Anomalous rotation curves (Oort 1932) led to Dark Matter (Rubin 1965).

Some Open Puzzles that may lead to radical new physics:

Fermion Mass Problem, u-d quark mass inversion (1975) -> ?

Why is the up quark lighter than the down quark ?

Hawking radiation information paradox (Hawking 1975) -> ?

Hawking radiation has caused more trouble for physics theory than any other unconfirmed phenomena.

Supernova Ia puzzle (Whelan & Iben 1973) -> ?

-> Phase transition in dense matter?

More recent puzzle:

Cosmological measure problem, entropy problem, initial state problem, Hubble constant anomaly ->?

-> cosmological inhomogeneity?